英语读写复习

第一单元

1 “If you can remember anything about the 1960s, you weren’t really there,” so the saying goes. It may be true for those who spent their college years in a haze of marijuana smoke. But there is one thing everyone remembers about the 1960s: Going to college was the most exciting and stimulating experience of your life.
有这么一种说法:“要是你能记得20世纪60年代的任何事情,你就没有真正经历过那段岁月。”对于在大麻烟雾中度过大学时光的那些人,这话可能是真的。但是,20世纪60年代有一件事人人都记得,那就是:上大学是你一生中最激动人心、最刺激的经历。

2 In the 1960s, California’s colleges and universities had transformed the state into the world’s seventh largest economy. However, Berkeley, the University of California’s main campus, was also well-known for its student demonstrations and strikes, and its atmosphere of political radicalism. When Ronald Reagan ran for office as governor of California in 1966, he asked if Californians would allow “a great university to be brought to its knees by a noisy, dissident minority”. The liberals replied that it was the ability to tolerate noisy, dissident minorities which made universities great.
20世纪60年代,加州的高校把本州变成了世界第七大经济实体。然而,加州大学的主校园伯克利分校也以学生示威、罢课以及激进的政治氛围而著名。1966年,罗纳德·里根竞选加州州长,他问加州是否允许“一所伟大的大学被喧闹的、唱反调的少数人征服”。自由派人士回答说,大学之所以伟大正是因为它们有能力容忍喧闹的、唱反调的少数人。

3 On university campuses in Europe, mass socialist or communist movements gave rise to increasingly violent clashes between the establishment and the college students, with their new and passionate commitment to freedom and justice. Much of the protest was about the Vietnam War. But in France, the students of the Sorbonne in Paris managed to form an alliance with the trade unions and to launch a general strike, which ultimately brought about the resignation of President de Gaulle.
在欧洲的大学校园里,大学生以新的姿态和激情投入到争取自由和正义的事业中去,大规模的社会主义或共产主义运动引发了他们与当权者之间日益升级的暴力冲突。许多抗议是针对越南战争的。可是在法国,巴黎大学索邦神学院的学生与工会联盟发动了一场大罢工,最终导致戴高乐总统下台。

4 It wasn’t just the activism that characterized student life in the 1960s. Everywhere, going to college meant your first taste of real freedom, of late nights in the dorm or in the Junior Common Room, discussing the meaning of life. You used to have to go to college to read your first forbidden book, see your first indie film, or find someone who shared your passion for Jimi Hendrix or Lenny Bruce. It was a moment of unimaginable freedom, the most liberating in your life.
20世纪60年代大学生活的特点并不仅仅是激进的行动。不论在什么地方,上大学都意味着你初次品尝真正自由的滋味,初次品尝深更半夜在宿舍或学生活动室里讨论人生意义的滋味。你往往得上了大学才能阅读你的第一本禁书,看你的第一部独立影人电影,或者找到和你一样痴迷吉米·亨德里克斯或兰尼·布鲁斯的志同道合者。那是一段难以想象的自由时光,你一生中最无拘无束的时光。

5 But where’s the passion today? What’s the matter with college? These days political, social and creative awakening seems to happen not because of college, but in spite of it. Of course, it’s true that higher education is still important. For example, in the UK, Prime Minister Blair was close to achieving his aim of getting 50 per cent of all under thirties into college by 2010 (even though a cynic would say that this was to keep them off the unemployment statistics). Yet college education is no longer a topic of great national importance. Today, college is seen as a kind of small town from which people are keen to escape. Some people drop out, but the most apathetic stay the course because it’s too much effort to leave.
可如今那份激情哪儿去了?大学怎么了?现在,政治、社会和创造意识的觉醒似乎不是凭借大学的助力,而是冲破其阻力才发生的。当然,一点不假,高等教育仍然重要。例如,在英国,布莱尔首相几乎实现了到2010年让50%的30岁以下的人上大学的目标(即使愤世嫉俗的人会说,这是要把他们排除在失业统计数据之外)。不过,大学教育已不再是全民重视的话题了。如今,大学被视为人们急于逃离的一种小镇。有些人辍学,但大多数已经有些麻木,还是坚持混到毕业,因为离开 学校实在是太费事了。

6 Instead of the heady atmosphere of freedom which students in the 1960s discovered, students today are much more serious. The British Council has recently done research into the factors which help international students decide where to study. In descending order these are: quality of courses, employment prospects, affordability, personal security issues, lifestyle, and accessibility. College has become a means to an end, an opportunity to increase one’s chances on the employment market, and not an end in itself, which gives you the chance to imagine, just for a short while, that you can change the world.
没有了20世纪60年代大学生所发现的令人头脑发热的自由气氛,如今的大学生要严肃得多。英国文化协会最近做了一项调查,研究外国留学生在决定上哪所大学时所考虑的因素。这些因素从高到低依次是:课程质量、就业前景、学费负担、人身安全问题、生活方式,以及各种便利。大学已变成实现目的的手段,是在就业市场上增加就业几率的一个机会,上大学本身不再是目的,这给你提供一个机会,让你暂时想象一下:你能够改变世界。

7 The gap between childhood and college has shrunk, and so has the gap between college and the real world. One of the reasons may be financial. In an uncertain world, many children rely on their parents’ support much longer than they used to. Students leaving university in the 21st century simply cannot afford to set up their own home because it’s too expensive. Another possible reason is the communications revolution. Gone are the days when a son or daughter rang home once or twice a term. Today students are umbilically linked to their parents by their cell phones. And as for finding like-minded friends to share a passion for obscure literature or music, well, we have the Internet and chat rooms to help us do that.
童年与大学之间的距离已缩小了,大学与现实世界之间的距离也缩小了。其中的一个原因可能和经济有关。在一个没有保障的世界里,现在的许多孩子依赖父母资助的时间比以前的孩子更长。21世纪的学生大学毕业后根本无法自立门户,因为那太昂贵了。另一个可能的原因是通信革命。子女每学期往家里打一两回电话的日子一去不复返了。如今,大学生通过手机与父母保持着脐带式联系。至于寻找痴迷无名文学或音乐的同道好友,没问题,我们有互联网和聊天室来帮助我们做到这一点。

8 “Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive,
But to be young was very heaven!”
“幸福啊,活在那个黎明之中,
年轻更是如进天堂!”

9 Wordsworth may have written these lines about the French Revolution, but they were also true for the students of the 1960s. So why aren’t they true for the students of today?
华兹华斯的诗句说的可能是法国大革命,但是对于20世纪60年代的大学生而言,这样的诗句同样真实生动。可是为什么对于如今的大学生来说,它们就不真实了呢?

4,篮球运动是一个名叫詹姆斯·奈史密斯的体育老师发明的。1891年冬天,他接到一个任务,要求他发明一种运动,让田径运动员既保持良好的身体状态,又能不受伤害。篮球在大学校园里很快流行起来。20世纪40年代,职业联赛开始之后,美国职业篮球联赛一直从大学毕业生里招募球员。这样做对美国职业篮球联赛和大学双方都有好处:大学留住了可能转向职业篮球赛的学生,而美国职业篮球联赛无需花钱组建一个小职业篮球联盟。大学篮球在全国的普遍推广以及美国大学体育协会对“疯狂三月”(即美国大学体育协会甲级联赛男篮锦标赛)的市场推广,使得这项大学体育赛事一直在蓬勃发展。

5,Volunteering has now become the norm for college students in China.They went to the community to serve the elderly, go to school in mountain areas, hold love donation activities, or volunteer at important international events such as the World Expo or the Olympic Games. Participating in volunteer activities helps students acquire professional skills, enrich social experience and improve moral standards. The majority of college students believe that it is their duty and obligation to participate in volunteer activities. They hope to do something meaningful to return the society andpromote the development of society.

第四单元

1 “Frank never went to pilot school, medical school, law school, … because he’s still in high school.”
“弗兰克从未上过飞行学院、医学院、法学院……因为他还在上高中。”

2 That was the strapline of the 2002 film Catch Me If You Can, which tells the story of Frank Abagnale, Jr. (Leonardo DiCaprio), a brilliant young master of deception who at different times impersonated a doctor, a lawyer, and an airplane pilot, forging checks worth more than six million dollars in 26 countries. He became the youngest man to ever make the FBI’s most-wanted list for forgery. Hunted and caught in the film by fictional FBI agent Carl Hanratty (Tom Hanks), Abagnale later escaped. He eventually became a consultant for the FBI where he focused on white-collar crime.
这是2002年的电影《有种来抓我》的标语。影片讲述了小弗兰克·阿巴格纳尔(列奥纳多·迪卡普里奥饰演)的故事。影片主人公是一位聪明绝顶的年轻骗术大师,曾在不同时间扮演医生、律师和飞行员的角色,在26个国家伪造了价值600万美元以上的支票。他成了联邦调查局有史以来伪造罪头号通缉令名单上最年轻的通缉犯。在影片中,阿巴格纳尔被虚构的联邦调查局特工卡尔·汉拉提(汤姆·汉克斯饰演)追捕,但后来逃脱了。他最终成了联邦调查局专攻白领犯罪的顾问。

3 It’s a great film, but could it happen in real life? In fact, Catch Me If You Can is based on the true story of Frank Abagnale, whose career as a fraudster lasted about six years before he was caught, who escaped from custody three times (once through an airplane toilet), and who spent a total of six years in prison in France, Sweden and the US. He now runs a consultancy advising the world of business how to avoid fraud. He has raised enough money to pay back all his victims, and is now a multimillionaire.
《有种来抓我》是一部很棒的电影,但影片中的事情会在现实生活中发生吗?其实,《有种来抓我》是根据弗兰克·阿巴格纳尔的真实故事改编的,他的行骗生涯持续了大约六年;被抓后,曾三次逃脱拘押(有一次是从飞机的厕所逃走的);在法国、瑞典和美国的监狱中总共度过了六年时光。他现在经营一家咨询事务所,为企业界提供防造假咨询。他挣到了足够的钱,赔付了所有的受害者,如今已是大富豪。

4 Since 2003, identity theft has become increasingly common. Few people could imagine how important things like taking mail to the post office and not leaving it in the mailbox for pickup, shredding documents instead of throwing them out with the trash, even using a pen costing a couple of bucks, have become to avoid life-changing crimes.
2003年以来,身份盗窃案变得越来越常见。很少有人会想到,为了预防这种足以改变人生的犯罪,采取一些预防措施有多么重要,比如把邮件拿到邮局去寄而不是丢在信箱里等人来取、把文件切碎而不是直接把它们连同垃圾一道扔掉,甚至使用几美元一支的(特效)笔等等。

5 More and more people are becoming anonymous victims of identity theft. We spend many hours and dollars trying to recover our name, our credit, our money and our lives. We need to look for different ways to protect ourselves. We can improve our chances of avoiding this crime, but it will never go away.
越来越多的人正在成为身份盗窃案的无名受害者。我们花费许多时间和金钱,去努力挽回我们的姓名、我们的信用、我们的金钱和我们的生活。我们需要想方设法来保护自己。我们可以减少此类犯罪的机会,但是它永远不会消失。

6 It’s not just a list of do’s and don’ts, we need to change our mindset. Although online banking is now commonplace, there’s a significant group of people in the country – the baby boomers, 15 per cent of the population – who still prefer to use paper. What’s more, 30 per cent of cases of fraud occur within this group. A check has all the information about you that an identity thief needs. If you use a ballpoint pen, the ink can be removed with the help of a regular household chemical and the sum of money can be changed. More than 1.2 million bad checks are issued every day, more than 13 per second.
这不仅仅是列一份“该做”和“不该做”事项的清单可以解决的,我们还需要改变心态。虽然网上银行现在很常见,但国内有一大群人——即占人口15%的生育高峰时期出生的一代人——还是更喜欢用纸。而且,30%的诈骗案都发生在这群人当中。支票上有身份盗贼所需的你的全部信息。如果你用圆珠笔,笔迹可以用一般的家用化学药品除去,钱数可以更改。每天发出的空头支票高达120万张以上,平均每秒13张以上。

7 Check fraud is big business … and growing by 25 per cent every year. Criminals count on our mistakes to make their jobs easier. So how can we prevent identity theft before it happens to us?
支票造假是个大产业……每年以25%的速率增长。犯罪分子指望我们犯错误,好让他们更容易得手。那么我们怎样才能防患于未然呢?

8 Take a few precautions. Don’t leave your mail in your mailbox overnight or over the weekend. Thieves wait for the red flag to go up, so they can look through your outgoing mail for useful personal information or checks. Use a gel pen for checks and important forms; the ink is trapped in the fibre of the paper, and it can’t be removed with chemicals. Also, shred or tear up all documents which contain personal information before you put them in the trash.
采取一些预防措施。不要把你的邮件留在邮箱里过夜或过周末。小偷就等着看你家信箱的小红旗(注:在美国,信箱上插上小红旗表示有邮件需要投递),以便通过你要投递的邮件找寻有用的个人信息或支票。要用签字笔填写支票和重要表格,(因为)签字笔的墨水会渗进纸张的纤维中,无法用化学药品除去。还有,切碎或撕碎含有个人信息的所有文件,然后再把它们丢进垃圾桶。

9 Remember that there are plenty of online opportunities for thieves to create a false identity based on your own. We’re all aware of the risks to personal information on computer databases by hacking and Trojan horses. But choosing someone and doing a Google search can also yield large amounts of personal information, and so can online social networking sites such as Facebook and Bebo. And just as we take our pocketbook with us when we leave the office to go to the bathroom, it’s also worth logging off your computer to avoid opportunistic theft.
记住,网上有大量机会可以被小偷利用。他们根据你的身份伪造假身份。我们都知道黑客行为和木马软件对电脑数据库中个人信息的威胁。但是在谷歌上搜索某人也会透露大量个人信息,在线社交网站(如“脸书”和“毕波”)也一样。正如我们离开办公室去厕所时要随身带上钱包一样,离开电脑时也应该注销,以防临时起意的盗窃。

10 Finally, if you get robbed in a more traditional way – in the street – canceling your credit cards is obviously the first thing to do. But don’t forget that even after they’re reported lost, they can be used as identification to acquire store cards … and you get the criminal record.
最后一点,假如你遭遇较传统方式的抢劫——比如在大街上——挂失你的信用卡显然是要做的第一件事。但是别忘了,即使挂失了,信用卡也可以用作身份证件来获得购物卡……那你就有了犯罪记录。

11 Identity fraud can go on for years without the victim’s knowledge. There is no escaping the fact that right now fraudsters are finding identity crime all too easy. If you haven’t had your identity stolen, it’s only because they haven’t got to you yet. Your turn will come.
身份伪造可以肆行多年而不为受害者所知。一个无法回避的事实是:现在的诈骗者觉得身份犯罪简直是太容易了。如果你的身份尚未失窃,那只是因为他们还没有对你动手。就会轮到你的。

5 Translate the paragraph into Chinese.

There have been many remarkable technological innovations in recent years, including the Internet, personal computer systems, and handheld devices. The Internet continues to evolve, and to make our daily lives easier. However, despite all the benefits of high-tech advancement, it also poses new problems that we have to deal with. One of these is cybercrime, which is a growing concern for ordinary people as well as experts. Experts have developed various ways to prevent cybercrime targeted at individuals, families, businesses, and government agencies. We can also protect ourselves against cybercrime targeted at individuals by limiting the amount of personal information we put online. We must never provide any personal data to unknown agencies or individuals online. It is also important to be cautious about opening email attachments and installing programs on our computers.
近年来涌现了许多重大技术发明,其中包括互联网、个人电脑系统及掌上设备。互联网技术不断发 展,给我们的日常生活带来了诸多便利。然而,虽然高科技的发展带来了种种好处,它也带来了有 待解决的新问题,其中一个就是网络犯罪。网络犯罪已成为普通民众及专家日益关注的问题。专家 们提出了各种方法来预防针对个人、家庭、企业及政府机关的网络犯罪。在预防针对个人的网络犯 罪方面,我们必须尽量减少在网上发布个人信息以自我保护。我们应避免向陌生的在线机构和个人 提供个人信息。要格外提防那些要求在电脑上进行安装的网站或邮箱附件,这一点也十分重要。

6 Translate the paragraph into English.
20世纪中后期,随着科学技术的迅速发展,以网络技术为代表的高科技相继问世。但与此同时,以网络犯罪为代表的各种高科技犯罪也开始出现,对社会的健康发展带来潜在的威胁。如何预防和减少高科技犯罪已成为受到普遍关注的问题。中国也面临着同样的问题。为避免或减少由此带来的损失,在日常生活中,我们应该提高警惕,避免上当受骗。

In the middle and late 20th century, the rapid development of science and technology witnessed the birth of high technology, represented by the Internet. But at the same time various high-tech crimes, as represented by cybercrime, also arose, constituting a potential threat to the healthy development of society. How to prevent and reduce high-tech crimes has become a common concern. China is facing a similar situation. To avoid or reduce losses caused by high-tech crimes, we should keep alert in our daily lives, so as not to be deceived.

第五单元

1 Centuries ago people didn’t have much free time, because everyone was working too hard. In Britain in the 19th century, people had more time off, but the Victorians thought relaxing and doing nothing was a sin. So to avoid temptation, they invented football, rugby and cricket. People took up more gentle leisure activities like bird-watching, gardening and trainspotting, and it was even possible simply to watch a sport and give the impression that you were actually doing something useful.
数百年前,人们没有多少空闲时间,因为人人都在辛苦劳作。在19世纪的英国,人们有了较多闲暇,可是维多利亚时代的人认为歇着无所事事是一种罪过。于是为了避免诱惑,他们发明了足球、橄榄球和板球。人们开始从事更温和的休闲活动,如观鸟、园艺、收集火车头号码。他们甚至可能只是观看一项运动,给人一种有事可做的印象。

2 One instance of this is cricket, which is a peculiar game with weird rules, where nothing happens for five days, at the end of which the players often decide to call it a draw. And everyone, players and spectators, feel perfectly fulfilled by this non-event. It’s a good example of what we can now call a leisure inactivity.
其中一个例子是板球。这是一种规则怪异的奇特游戏,如果五天之内毫无进展,玩家往往就会决定双方战平。而无论是玩家还是观众,人人都对这毫无结果的比赛感到心满意足。这是个我们现在可以称之为闲暇无为的好例子。

3 Gradually over the years, leisure inactivities have involved even less interaction. In the 1990s a new leisure creature evolved, one who thinks that lying on the sofa watching sport or DVDs on the television is the most exciting inactivity they can manage. This is the couch potato.
近年来,闲暇无为中的互动逐渐变得更少了。在20世纪90年代,一个新的休闲物种进化成功,它认为躺在沙发上看电视体育节目或数码影碟是它们能做到的最令人兴奋的无为了。这就是沙发土豆。

4 So who wants to be a couch potato? Well, as a matter of fact, many people do, and for understandable reasons. Maybe it’s your one day off in the week. Maybe you just got back from work or school. Maybe you’re tired and just want to chill. For the couch potato, every activity is too much trouble, and laziness is an art form.
那么,谁想当沙发土豆呢?好吧,事实上,许多人都想,理由也是可以理解的。也许今天你休息,也许你刚下班或放学。也许你累了,只想放松。对沙发土豆来说,任何活动都太麻烦,懒散是一门艺术。

5 How do you become a couch potato? It’s easy. Sit down in a comfortable place, such as a reclining chair, a beanbag or … you knew it was coming … a couch. Don’t sit on a potato. Make sure you have everything you need, snacks (especially potato chips – no serious couch potato would eat anything else), drinks, magazines and a telly.
怎样才能变成沙发土豆呢?那很容易。在一个舒适的地方坐下,例如一张躺椅、一个豆袋或……你知道接下来就是……一张沙发。可别坐在土豆上。确保你拥有所需的一切:零食(尤其是土豆片——严肃的沙发土豆不会吃别的)、饮料、杂志和电视。

6 The most important piece of equipment is of course, the remote control. Without the freedom to change channel without moving from the couch, no couch potato would be worthy of the name. In fact, watching TV without a remote control becomes dangerously like physical exercise, and probably should be avoided.
最重要的装备当然是遥控器了。没有无需离开沙发就能换频道的自由,沙发土豆就配不上这个称号。事实上,没有遥控器看电视有变成近似体育锻炼的危险,或许是应当避免的。

7 Now just start watching the telly. Change channels every ten seconds, and then move on. Don’t be too keen, try not to get too interested in anything, because that risks your status as a couch potato. (Remember that you have the attention span of a Maris Piper.) Finally, ask other people to do things for you, like get more food, or rent a movie. But be nice to them! If you aren’t nice, you’ll probably have to do it yourself.
现在,就开始看电视吧。每隔十秒钟换一次频道,然后继续换。别太用心,尽量不要对任何节目太感兴趣,因为这会威胁到你的沙发土豆身份。(记住,你的注意力持续时间只有玛丽斯·派铂马铃薯的那么长。)最后,要让别人帮你做事,如拿更多食物,或租影碟。但是对他们态度要好!如果你态度不好,你就很可能得亲自动手了。

8 But with every new fashion, there’s a reaction. British farmers were recently reported by the BBC to be angry at the use of the expression couch potato, because it was damaging the vegetable’s image. Potatoes are inherently healthy, says the British Potato Council, and is organizing protests to demand the removal of couch potato from the Oxford English Dictionary.
但是,对于每种新时尚,都会有反对者。英国广播公司最近报道,英国农民对“沙发土豆”这一叫法感到愤怒,因为它败坏了土豆的形象。英国土豆协会称,土豆是天然有益于健康的,他们将要组织抗议活动,要求把“沙发土豆”一词从《牛津英语词典》中删除。

9 So there you are! Couch potatoes are healthy.
你瞧我没说错吧!沙发土豆是健康的。

10 Of course, for the true couch potato, there are inherent risks. Perhaps the greatest of these results from the lack of exercise, and is referred to by professional couch potatoes as telly belly. Some, however, see their telly bellyas a mark of their dedication to their leisure inactivity, and wear it proudly over the top of their trousers. (Interestingly, this is a highly fashionable style known as a muffin top. Find out why next time you’re in Starbucks.)
当然,对于真正的沙发土豆来说,固有的危险还是有的。也许最大的危险来自缺乏锻炼,其后果便是被专业沙发土豆称为电视肚。然而,有些人则视自己的电视肚为专注闲暇无为的标志,骄傲地把它系在裤腰之上。(有趣的是,这是一种极为时尚的穿法,叫做松糕顶。下次泡星巴克的时候去弄明白为什么吧。)

11 But times move on, and in the 21st century we now have a version of the couch potato specially for the online activities on the computer. This is called the mouse potato. A mouse potato spends excessive amounts of time in front of a computer monitor, with the same lack of interest in the outside world as their older cousin, the couch potato. Mouse potatoes are addicted to online gaming with other fellow tubers around the world. In fact, leaving the computer not only seems pointless but also risks a threat by some rival mouse potato in a brighter time zone across the world. For time off, they usually perform extensive Internet searches or participate in online chat rooms, leaving ill-informed and badly spelt opinions around the virtual world, and generally insulting one’s intelligence.
可是时间在推移,到了21世纪,我们现在又有了沙发土豆的翻版,特指电脑在线活动。这叫做鼠标土豆。鼠标土豆在电脑显示器前面花费太多的时间,和他们的表兄沙发土豆一样缺乏对外界的兴趣。鼠标土豆痴迷于与世界各地的块茎同伴玩在线游戏。事实上,离开电脑不仅毫无意义,而且会使你受到世界上较亮时区的鼠标土豆对手的威胁。休息期间,他们通常在互联网上进行广泛搜索或加入在线聊天室,在虚拟世界到处留下缺乏见识和拼写拙劣的意见,一般来说是对人家智力的污辱。。

12 For the more adventurous mouse potatoes, you can even travel the world and visit countries you might otherwise never see by going to CouchPotatoTravel. com. You can also find out how much time you spend on your computer by logging the distance your mouse travels. These are called mouse miles, and who knows, maybe one day you can exchange them for more potato chips at all good computer stores.
对于更具冒险精神的鼠标土豆来说,你甚至可以登录沙发土豆旅游网站,去周游世界,造访列国,如果没有该网站你可能永远也去不了这些地方。通过记录你的鼠标旅行的距离,你还可以算出你在电脑上花了多少时间。这叫做鼠标英里数,或许将来的某一天,在所有好的电脑商店里你可以拿它换更多的土豆片。

13 So with a minimum of effort you too can have your own leisure inactivity. Become a couch potato! Earn that telly belly! Train hard as a mouse potato, and earn mouse miles. Get started today. There’s so much time, and so little to do.
就这样,费最小的劲,你也可以拥有自己的闲暇无为。变成一个沙发土豆吧!养一个那样的电视肚吧!作为鼠标土豆刻苦训练,挣鼠标英里数吧。今天就开始吧。时间那么多,而要做的事情却那么少。

Translation

4 Translate the paragraph into Chinese.

An amusement park is a group of entertainment attractions, rides, and other events in a location for the enjoyment of large numbers of people. Amusement parks evolved from three earlier traditions: European fairs, pleasure gardens and World’s fairs and expositions. In common language, the terms “theme park” and “amusement park” are often synonymous. However, a theme park can be regarded as a distinct style of amusement park. A theme park has landscaping, buildings, and attractions that are based on one or more specific themes or stories. The amusement park industry’s offerings range from large, worldwide theme parks such as Walt Disney World, SeaWorld Orlando and Universal Studios Hollywood to smaller and medium-sized theme parks such as the Six Flags parks and Cedar Fair parks. Walt Disney World’s Magic Kingdom is the most visited theme park in the world. The Cinderella Castle, the park’s icon, is also one of the most photographed buildings in the United States.

游乐园是集娱乐景点、游乐设施和其他娱乐活动为一体、供大众游玩的娱乐场所。游乐园是从过去三种传统的游乐场所发展而来的:欧洲的定期集市、欢乐花园和世界博览会。在日常用语中,人们通常会把“主题公园”和“游乐园”当作同义词。但是,主题公园可以被看作是独具一格的游乐园。主题公园有美化的景观,有建筑,有基于一个或多个特定的主题或故事而设置的景点。游乐园行业既包括像迪斯尼乐园、奥兰多海洋世界和好莱坞环球影城这样的大型全球主题公园,也包括像六旗乐园和雪松会公园这样小一些和中等规模的主题公园。迪士尼乐园的奇幻王国是全世界参观人数最多的主题公园,公园的标志性建筑灰姑娘城堡也是美国最著名的拍照景点之一。
5 Translate the paragraph into English.
自2008年全面实行免费开放以来,中国博物馆每年举办展览两万多个,年参观人次达6亿多。博物馆不仅陈列藏品,还兼具教育、娱乐和休闲的功能。参观博物馆已成为中国人享受闲暇时光的一种重要方式。每到周末和节假日,家长就会带着孩子到各类博物馆参观。旅游者每到一个地方,除了品尝当地的美食、欣赏美景,也会去参观当地的博物馆,了解其历史文化。

Since 2008, with the implementation of the free admissions policy, Chinese museums have had more than 20,000 exhibitions, which have attracted over 600 million visitors each year. Museums are not only places to display collections, but also sites with educational, entertainment and recreational functions. For Chinese people, visiting museums has become an important means of enjoying their leisure time. On weekends and holidays, parents take their children to various kinds of museums. While visiting a place, apart from eating amazing local food and enjoying beautiful scenery, tourists may also visit local museums to learn more about its history and culture.

第八单元

1 In the old days it was easy. They were going to be the best three years of your life, and you knew it. You spent your time chatting late into the night with new-found friends in coffee bars and pubs, playing your heart out in the squash courts and on the cricket field, or strutting across the stage as a leading light of the university dramatic society. Whatever your interest, university life catered for it. And, let’s not forget, you would usually manage to keep up with the work too, by doing the required reading and dashing off the week’s essay at the last minute. The only thing you didn’t find time for was thinking about what came afterwards, at the end of those three exciting years. But you didn’t need to, because whatever your chosen career, the companies were all lining up to offer you a job.
过去,大学生活很轻松。那将是你一生中最美好的三年,你知道这一点的。你是这样消磨时光的:在咖啡馆和酒吧里与新结交的朋友聊到深夜,在壁球场和板球场上尽情地挥舞球拍,或是作为大学戏剧社的大腕在舞台上昂首阔步。不管你有什么爱好,大学生活都能为你创造条件。而且,别忘了,你的学习还总能跟得上,能完成指定的阅读,并在最后一分钟匆忙写完那一周的文章。你唯一没有时间考虑的是过完这激动人心的三年后要做什么。不过这个问题并不需要考虑,因为无论选择什么职业,都有一大堆公司排着队来聘用你。

2 That was what it was like in the old days as a student in the UK. But things have changed. A recent study of Britain’s major multinational companies reveals that even with a good degree graduates can no longer walk into the top jobs. Today there are twice as many universities as there were just 30 years ago, and 40 per cent of young people now go on to higher education. So with no shortage of graduates, a good degree has become vital in the search for a job. Competition is tough, and today’s students are spending more time than ever preparing for those dreaded final exams, or doing low-paid part-time jobs to pay off debts.
那是过去英国大学生校园生活的情形,现在情况已经改变了。最近一项对英国各大跨国公司的研究表明,即使拥有一个不错的学位,大学毕业生也不再可能轻而易举就得到最好的工作了。今天的大学数量比30年前翻了一番,40%的年轻人接受高等教育。由于并不缺少大学毕业生,拥有一个不错的学位对找工作就变得尤其重要了。竞争很激烈,结果是如今的大学生花了比任何时候都要多的时间来复习功课,为那些可怕的期末考试做准备,做报酬低的兼职以偿还债务。

3 But that’s just the problem. In the opinion of managers from more than 200 British companies, students are spending too much time studying, or worrying about making ends meet, instead of joining clubs and acquiring basic skills such as teamwork and making presentations. The managers also said that they were prepared to leave jobs unfilled rather than appoint graduates who didn’t have the necessary skills to get ahead in the global market.
然而,这恰恰是问题之所在。英国两百多家公司的经理认为,学生花在学习或挣钱维持生计上的时间太多了。他们本应该去参加各种俱乐部,学习一些基本的技能,如团队合作和现场演示。这些经理还说,他们宁可让职位空缺,也不愿意聘请那些缺乏必要技能、无法在国际市场上占领商机的毕业生。

4 But what can be done about the problem? The solution, the managers believe, is to include social skills in degree courses; and some universities are taking the advice. At the University of Southampton, for example, history students have to do a 12-week project – frequently related to the local context – working in teams of six. This includes making a presentation, writing a group thesis, and carrying out a public service, which might involve teaching schoolchildren or making a radio programme about the topic.
该怎么做才能解决这个问题呢?经理们相信,解决的办法就是在学位课程里增加社交能力的训练。有的大学已经开始这样做了,例如南安普敦大学历史系学生必须做一个为期十二周、六人一组协同工作的项目——通常与当地的生活有关。项目内容包括:做一次演示、写一篇集体论文、做一项公众服务——可以是给中、小学生讲课,或做一期有关中、小学教学的广播节目。

5 There can be no doubt that this sort of cooperative approach can help many students develop personal skills which will help improve their prospects in their search for a job. One of the most well-known personality tests used by employers when interviewing candidates, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), puts the extrovert / introvert dichotomy at the top of the list of personality traits it tries to analyze. There are no “right answers” in such tests, but extroverts, it is assumed, are going to be more suited to jobs in which they have to work in teams or deal with other people.
毫无疑问,这种合作学习法能帮助许多学生培养有助于改善就业前景的个人技能。公司在面试应聘者时使用的最有名的人格测试之一是“迈尔斯-布里格斯性格分类法”(简称MBTI),这种分类法把外向/内向性格两分法置于它所分析的人格特征列表之首。测试中没有“正确答案”,但是一般认为:性格外向者更适合做团队工作或与他人打交道的工作。

6 Equally interesting in the Southampton project is the conviction that students should be aware of the wider community, and find ways to make contributions to it. In today’s shrinking world, students are increasingly aware that a university is not an ivory tower of learning, cut off from the real problems of the world, but on the contrary, can itself be an agent for change for a better world. There are numerous ways in which students can be volunteers – before, during, or after their degree courses. With courses making heavy demands on students’ time, as we have seen, a popular option is to take a gap year before or after university.
南安普敦大学项目中同样有趣的一个理念是:学生应该关注比校园更广阔的社区,并设法为之作出自己的贡献。在当今越来越小的世界里,学生们越来越清楚地意识到大学并不是与社会现实问题完全脱钩的学术象牙塔。正相反,大学本身可以促使世界变得更加美好。在学学位课程之前、期间、之后,学生们都可以通过多种渠道成为志愿者。正如我们所知的那样,大学课程需要学生花费大量的时间,一般人会选择腾出上大学前或大学毕业后的一年时间作为实践年。

7 Typically, volunteering might mean helping the sick or elderly, entertaining underprivileged children on holiday camps, teaching in a Third World country or perhaps working on agricultural or environmental projects.
通常,志愿工作指帮助病人或老年人、在假日营里招待贫困儿童、在第三世界国家教书,或者做农业或环境研究项目。

8 For students who choose to offer their talents in this way, one side effect is to gain a wealth of experience to be added to the CV, which will not go unnoticed by future employers. But a word of warning is in order: You should remember what your priorities are. As Shane Irwin, who worked for two years in Papua New Guinea, puts it: “Volunteering teaches you valuable career skills, but I don’t think you should be looking to bolster your CV through volunteering – the main reason you should get involved is because you want to help.”
对那些选择在这些方面施展才能的学生而言,还有个意外的收获:可以把他们获取的丰富经验写进个人履历里,而未来的雇主是不会不注意到这些经历的。不过提醒一句:你应该记住自己的首要目的是什么。曾经在巴布亚新几内亚工作了两年的谢恩·欧文指出:“志愿者的工作能教给你宝贵的职业技能,但我认为你不应该只想着通过志愿者工作来给自己的履历表增添光彩——你做志愿工作的主要原因是你想帮助别人。”

Translation

6 Translate the paragraph into Chinese.

On 4 February, 2004, a Harvard student named Mark Zuckerberg, along with a few of his fellow classmates, had an idea to create a social network for Harvard students. Dubbed “TheFacebook”, the site was a place where students could communicate and share photos with their friends. Within a month, TheFacebook grew in popularity, prompting its founders to include students from other well-respected universities. It didn’t take long for it to become a fully-fledged (成熟的) business that Zuckerberg decided to expand to most of the universities in the US and Canada. It eventually opened the site to any user, rather than just college students. From humble beginnings, Facebook (the company dropped the “The” from its name in 2005) has grown to become the world’s No. 1 social network with more than 350 million users worldwide. Now Facebook has become a major cultural touchstone, and the buzz (热度) it captured in the early part of this decade shows no sign of abating (消退).

2004年2月4日,哈佛大学的学生马克·扎克伯格和几位同学萌生了为哈佛的学生建立一个社交网站的想法。在这个名为“脸书(TheFacebook)”的网站上,学生们可以和朋友聊天、分享照片。在一个月内“脸书”就迅速蹿红,于是网站创始人把其他知名大学的学生也都连接到了网内。不久,“脸书”就发展成一个成熟的公司,扎克伯格决定将网站扩展到美国和加拿大的大多数大学。最终,“脸书”不仅向大学生开放,还向所有的人开放。“脸书(Facebook)”(2005年,公司从名字中删除了“The”)从最初的名不见经传变成了全球最大的社交网站,在世界各地拥有3.5 亿用户。如今,“脸书”已成为一个重要的文化试金石,它的热度在这个十年的前半段仍然没有消退的迹象。

7 Translate the paragraph into English.
随着就业市场竞争的日益激烈,中国大学生越来越重视实习。每年都有大量的高年级学生参与实习。实习有助于学生验证自己的职业抉择、了解目标工作的内容和要求、学习技能、锻炼才干。实习是帮助学生找到好工作的有效途径。企业在招聘时会倾向于寻找有相关实习经历的应聘者,有些企业在招聘的时候会优先录取自己的实习生。

With the increasingly fierce competition in the job market, Chinese college students are attaching more and more importance to internships. Every year, a lot of senior students take part in internships which may help them find out whether they have made the right choice of career and have a clear idea of what they are going to do in their target job and what the job demands; it also helps students learn skills and cultivate their abilities. Taking internships is an effective way to secure a good job. In recruiting new staff, companies tend to prefer applicants with relevant internship experience. Some companies will give preference to those who have done an internship in their companies.

With the increasingly fierce competition in the job market, Chinese college students are paying more and more attention to internships. Every year, a large number of senior students participate in internships. Internship helps students verify their career choices, understand the content and requirements of the target work, study skills, and exercise skills. Internships are an effective way to help students find a good job. When recruiting, companies tend to look for applicants with relevant internship experience. Some companies will give priority to recruiting their interns when they are recruiting.

英语凉了。。。。。。

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